The concept of universal health coverage sounds like a utopia for people in some countries and regions around the world, but it has been successfully implemented for years in China and Vietnam. Global health scientist Shenglan Tang and team explored the ways in which China and Vietnam have achieved universal health coverage through in-depth interviews with policymakers and secondary data analysis. The study finds that China has increased population coverage through strong political commitment and extensive government financial subsidies. Vietnam expanded population coverage gradually, by prioritizing the poor and the near-poor in an incremental way. Compared with Vietnam, China suffers from persistent disparities among population income levels and geographic location.